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Social Security was originally intended to provide older Americans with continuing income after retirement. Since then, the scope of Social Security has been widened to include survivor's, disability, and other benefits, but retirement benefits are still the cornerstone of the program.
When you work and pay Social Security taxes (FICA on some pay stubs), you earn Social Security credits. You can earn up to 4 credits each year. If you were born after 1928, you need 40 credits (10 years of work) to be eligible for retirement benefits.
Your retirement benefit is based on your average earnings over your working career. Higher lifetime earnings result in higher benefits, so if you have some years of no earnings or low earnings, your benefit amount may be lower than if you had worked steadily. Your age at the time you start receiving benefits also affects your benefit amount. Although you can retire early at age 62, the longer you wait to retire (up to age 70), the higher your retirement benefit.
You can estimate your retirement benefit online based on your actual earnings record using the Retirement Estimator calculator on the Social Security website, www.socialsecurity.gov. You can create various scenarios based on current law that will illustrate how different earnings amounts and retirement ages will affect your benefits.
Your full retirement age depends on the year in which you were born.
Note: If you were born on January 1 of any year, refer to the previous year to determine your full retirement age.
If you retire at full retirement age, you'll receive an unreduced retirement benefit.
You can begin receiving Social Security benefits before your full retirement age, as early as age 62. However, if you retire early, your Social Security benefit will be less than if you wait until your full retirement age to begin receiving benefits. Your retirement benefit will be reduced by 5/9ths of 1 percent for every month between your retirement date and your full retirement age, up to 36 months, then by 5/12ths of 1 percent thereafter. For example, if your full retirement age is 67, you'll receive about 30 percent less if you retire at age 62 than if you wait until age 67 to retire. This reduction is permanent - you won't be eligible for a benefit increase once you reach full retirement age.
Still, receiving early Social Security retirement benefits makes sense for many people. Even though you'll receive less per month than if you wait until full retirement age to begin receiving benefits, you'll receive benefits several years earlier.
For each month that you delay receiving Social Security retirement benefits past your full retirement age, your benefit will increase by a certain percentage. This percentage varies depending on your year of birth. For example, if you were born in 1943 or later, your benefit will increase 8 percent for each year that you delay receiving benefits. In addition, working past your full retirement age has another benefit: It allows you to add years of earnings to your Social Security record. As a result, you may receive a higher benefit when you do retire, especially if your earnings are higher than in previous years.
You can work and still receive Social Security retirement benefits, but the income that you earn before you reach full retirement age may affect the amount of benefit that you receive. Here's how:
If you're under full retirement age: $1 in benefits will be deducted for every $2 in earnings you have above the annual limit.
In the year you reach full retirement age: $1 in benefits will be deducted for every $3 you earn over the annual limit (a different limit applies here) until the month you reach full retirement age.
Once you reach full retirement age, you can work and earn as much income as you want without reducing your Social Security retirement benefit.
Even if your spouse has never worked outside your home or in a job covered by Social Security, he or she may be eligible for spousal benefits based on your Social Security earnings record. Other members of your family may also be eligible. Retirement benefits are generally paid to family members who relied on your income for financial support.
You should apply for benefits at your local Social Security office or online two or three months before your retirement date. However, the SSA suggests that you contact your local office a year before you plan on applying for benefits to discuss how retiring at a certain age can affect your finances. Fill out an application on the SSA website, or call the SSA at (800) 772-1213 for more information on the application process.
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Last Revised 11/15/2017